The main focus of the CIAM was to create an Avante-Garde within the newly emerging anti-traditionalist architecture of the early twentieth century. Instead of simply accepting or rejecting CIAMs polemics, Eric Mumford reveals how CIAM defined new and perhaps overly ambitious socially transformative roles for architects and architecture, by combining certain design strategies with a passionately held conviction that architecture should serve the many and not the few. Giedion the CIAM secretary wrote that the goals of CIAM were: a to formulate the contemporary program of architecture b to advocate the idea of modern architecture c to forcefully introduce this idea into technical, economic and social circles d to see to the resolution of architectural problems The congress concluded that the future, whether as capitalist or a communist technocracy, was to be organized from above along the lines thought to be best for the general welfare of industrial societies everywhere. Following findings from Bohemia and Kaufman however, Gropius and Giedion shifted the debate over building heights away from the strictly economic justifications toward the collective social and spiritual advantages of each type. He insisted on the fundamental principle that urbanism was a three-dimensional science, and stressed that height was an important one of those dimensions. While the Garden City pattern satisfies the individual, he argued that it loses the advantages of collective organization.
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CIAM was one of many 20th century manifestos meant to advance the cause of architecture as a social art. It was not only engaged in formalizing the architectural principles of the Modern Movement, but also saw architecture as an economic and political tool that could be used to improve the world through the design of buildings and through urban planning. Based on an analysis of thirty-three cities, CIAM proposed that the social problems faced by cities could be resolved by strict functional segregation, and the distribution of the population into tall apartment blocks at widely spaced intervals.
These proceedings went unpublished from until , when Le Corbusier, acting alone, published them in heavily edited form as the Athens Charter. Alison and Peter Smithson were chief among the dissenters. When implemented in the postwar period, many of these ideas were compromised by tight financial constraints, poor understanding of the concepts, or popular resistance.
Le Corbusier had left in , objecting to the increasing use of English during meetings. Dissolution of the organization CIAM. Foreword by Kenneth Frampton. Max Risselada and Dirk van den Heuvel eds.
The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism, 1928-1960
The Ciam Discourse on Urbanism, 1928-1960
The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism, 1928–1960