Licence This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. Heracleum sosnowskyi seed development under the effect of exogenous application of GA3. Treatment of GA3 concentrations of 0. Seeds were collected from treated satellite umbels. It was observed that GA3treatment did not have a significant effect on the size of H.
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Licence This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed.
Heracleum sosnowskyi seed development under the effect of exogenous application of GA3. Treatment of GA3 concentrations of 0. Seeds were collected from treated satellite umbels. It was observed that GA3treatment did not have a significant effect on the size of H. The data on semi-thin longitudinal sections of H. The germination of seeds of each variant was estimated by burying them in the soil. Our studies indicated that GA3 application reduced the germination of H.
Like other invasive alien plants, it is leading to a reduction in local plant biodiversity. Additionally, it can cause considerable economic damage, sometimes also presenting a health hazard to humans. Contact with H. Herbicides are quite effective method to control the spread of this plant, however, such treatment is not recommended in natural habitats e.
An unsprayed buffer zone of 5 m should be left adjacent to any river or other water body Marcher, It is necessary to look for environmentally friendly biological measures to control invasion of the plant. Studies on the soil seed-bank of H. It is known that H. In alien species, the ability to develop a persistent seed bank is associated with their ability to naturalize and become invasive. Fruit parthenocarpy would be a solution to this problem. Auxins and gibberellins are two classes of plant hormones that are mostly used to obtain parthenocarpy.
Experimental data have shown that application of these plant growth regulators can trigger fruit set even without pollination and can induce parthenocarpic fruit development Serrani et al. For several fruit crops, parthenocarpy is very often obtained by breeding methods. The use of chemicals capable of inhibiting polar auxin transport has become a valuable and powerful tool in demonstrating the involvement of auxin transport in such processes.
According to the bulk of the experiments, GA and IAA-induced parthenocarpic fruit development has been observed mostly in fleshy fruit crops. However, there is still a significant lack of research into the effect of these hormones on parthenocarpy of many other crops. To improve our understanding of the hormonal control to fruit set and seed development, we studied the influence of GA3 and auxin transport inhibitor TIBA on dry fruits of the Apiaceae family plant.
Several studies have indicated that the exogenous application of plant growth regulators induces changes in morphology and histology of fruit during its development Serrani et al. The aim of this research was to inhibit H.
As in other species of the Apiaceae family, these fruits are dry schizocarps that consist of two strongly flattened mericarps seeds Jahodova et al. The studied area occupied 0. For our research, satellite umbels were treated and mericarps were collected from randomly selected plants. In order to increase higher content of native GA, the terminal umbels of flowering plants were removed.
All the axillary buds that developed as a result of plant decapitation were removed to prevent competition with developing fruits Serrani et al. All applications of bioactive chemical compounds were sprayed with hand sprayer to runoff. To exclude pollen-carrying insects, sprayed inflorescences were covered with bags for the period of pollination. Distilled water was used as a control. All the treatment protocol is shown in the scheme presented in Fig. A total of 9—10 plants and 25—30 inflorescences were used for flower treatment.
Mature seeds were collected in late August in — The collected seeds were analysed immediately. Analysis of seed development For anatomical evaluation, the seeds were composed in variac lines. Average samples were selected. Before transferring into a fresh portion of FAA, the fruit coat pericarp was removed. Preparations were analysed using light microscope Leica DMB.
Photographs were obtained using Leica DFC, attached to the same microscope. Figure 1: Scheme of treatment protocol.
DOI: The embryos were air-dried on filter paper for several seconds until the surface became dry Barthlott, Then, backscattered electron BSE images were observed and micrographs of embryos were made using FEI Quanta scanning electron microscope. Germination test The germination of seeds of each variant was estimated by burying them in the soil at the experimental garden. Seeds collected earlier in the same year were germinated in identical boxes with peat. A total of seeds of each variant with three replications at least were spread in each box.
Seeds were buried at the beginning of October and left until April. The effect of growth regulators treatment on germination of H. Results Effect of GA3 on formation and development of Heracleumsosnowskyi seeds To determine whether there were any morphological effects, H. Different time of maturity was the reason of different size of soaked and control variant seeds Fig. Figure 2: The variac line of GA3 treated H. Scale bar, 5 mm. All control mature fruits of H.
Figure 3: Heracleum sosnowskyi seed surfaces. A Without treatment control. B GA3 0. C GA3 0. Scale bar, 1 mm. D Scanning micrograph of degenerated endosperm and embryo the seed coat is removed. It was observed that in the case of higher GA3 concentration 0. However, it was noticed that GA3 at concentration of 0. Beside all these remarks, it was determined that GA3 treatment in some seeds caused degeneration of endosperm and embryo Fig.
Development of H. Examination of longitudinal sections of control variant of H. It was noticed that exogenous GA3 treatment affected Heracleum sosnowskyi seed embryo development. A longitudinal section of seeds clearly revealed that embryo of seeds treated with GA3 at concentration of 0.
Figure 4: Light micrographs of longitudinal sections of H. A Control. B After GA3 0. Abbreviations: a, axis; c, cotyledons; en, endosperm. Biometrical analysis of H. Figure 5: Scanning micrographs of embryos received from seed of H. Plants untreated A and treated with GA3 at a concentration of 0. Abbreviations: a, axis; c, cotyledons.
Kagajinn As well as being carcinogenic, these substances make the skin extremely light sensitive. Its native range includes the central and eastern Caucasus regions of Eurasia and extends into the southern Caucasus region called Transcaucasia. Zashchita Rastenii MoskvaNo. This method should only be considered as an improvised hetacleum for control of stands where no other attempts of control have taken place earlier in the season. Control of Heracleum mantegazzianum by grazing. Studies on natural enemies of H.
Top of page Genetics H. Genetically it is very close to H. Invasive populations in countries of Europe where the plant was cultivated are genetically close and indicate introduction from the same source perhaps via one of the breeding stations in Russia. Separate introduction was detected in a population in a park in Copenhagen, Denmark that clustered away from other European populations, together with native populations from Armenia. Breeding H. It is not known whether products from all the methods were later used in large-scale farming.
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Hessisches Landesamt für Naturschutz, Umwelt und Geologie